Robert Fields
 



At present, learning how to shoot on a variety of lenses ranging from a Rokinon 7.5mm f3.5 to a Tamron 28mm-300mm extended 2X with a Canon teleconverter and adapted to fit a Panasonic GH4 micro four-thirds body. 

Finishing the construction and testing of a compact, portable motorized one meter long slider weighing in at less than 5 lbs including its 12 volt battery. 

Continuing to study Lightroom, Photoshop and Final Cut Pro X; experimenting with different video settings including 4K video shot at 100 Mbps; working out the necessary workflows for back up and processing of these files.

                               


                       Curriculum Vitae
                                     


                                         ROBERt FIELDS

         


EDUCATION:

   


PUBLICATIONS in SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS:


AIDS Research and Human RetroViruses


Robert Neurath, Nathan Strict, Robert Fields
and Shibo Jiang:                          
Peptides Mimicking Selected Disulfide Loops in HIV-1 gp120, Other Than V3,
Do not Elicit Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies.
AIDS Research and Human RetroViruses
, 7: 657-662, 1991.


The positions of all 9 intrachain disulfide bonds within the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) have been established recently. Peptides expected to mimic some of the disulfide-bonded domains [(120-133)-(203-221); (133-138)-(164-203); (224-254); (391-425) and (385-392)-(425-452)] were synthesized. All peptides, except (120-133)-(203-221), elicited in immunized rabbits relatively high levels of antibodies reacting with gp120 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or Western immunoblot assays. However, these antibodies failed to neutralize the infectivity of HIV-1. Combined with earlier reports concerning other gp120 loop peptides, these results confirm the uniqueness of the V3 (303-338) loop in encompassing a principal determinant(s) involved in virus neutralization.


 

 

Journal of Interferon Research:         

Robert Fields, Tom M. Mariano, Stanley Stein and Sidney Pestka:  Recombinant rat and murine immune interferons are phosphorylated at a single site, Ser132.  J. Interferon Research,  8: 549-557, 1988.


Recombinant rat (Ra) and murine (Mu) immune interferons (IFN-gamma) were found to be phosphorylated by bovine heart muscle cAMP-dependent protein kinase at a single site, in contrast to human (Hu) IFN-gamma, which was reported to be phosphorylated at two different serine residues. Chromatography of a Staphylococcal aureus V8 protease digest of Ra or MuIFN-gamma indicated that the site of phosphorylation was in the carboxy-terminal undecamer fragment of the protein. Due to inherent problems in measuring both phenylthiohydantoin-serine (PTH-serine) and PTH-phosphoserine with an automated sequenator, a novel approach, involving partial Edman degradation of aliquots of the peptide followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, was developed. It was determined that Ser132 is the exclusive site of phosphorylation for both IFNs.


 

 

Biochemistry:     


D.P. Abriola, Robert Fields
, Stanley Stein, A.D. Mackerall and R. Pietruszko:  Active site of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase.  Biochemistry, 26: 5679, 1987.


Bromoacetophenone (2-bromo-1-phenylethanone) functions as an affinity reagent for human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) and has been found specifically to label a unique tryptic peptide in the enzyme. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the labeled peptide after purification by two different procedures revealed the following sequence: Val-Thr-Leu-Glu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Lys. Radioactivity was found to be associated with the glutamate residue, which was identified as Glu-268 by reference to the known amino acid sequence. This paper constitutes the first identification of an active site of aldehyde dehydrogenase.


                                                           

                                                                               

Biochemical  Journal:        


Robert Fields
:  Measurement of amino groups in proteins and peptides. Biochem J., 124: 581, 1971.

         

A technique is examined for determining amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid, in which the extinction at 420nm of sulphite complexes of the trinitrophenylated amino groups is measured. The sensitivity of the method is 5-200nmol of amino group. The method is especially suitable for checking the extent of blocking or unblocking of amino groups in proteins and peptides, owing to the short time required for reaction (5min at room temperature). The reaction of the reagent with thiol groups has been studied and was found to proceed 30-50 times faster than with in-amino groups of model compounds. The in(420) of a trinitrophenylated thiol group was found to be 2250m(-1).cm(-1). The reaction with several amino acids, peptides and proteins is presented. The in(420) of a typical alpha-amino group was found to be 22000m(-1).cm(-1) and that of an in-amino group, 19200m(-1).cm(-1). Difficulties inherent in the analysis of constituent amino group reactions in proteins are discussed.


 

 

Biochemical  Journal:         


Robert Fields
, H.B.F. Dixon, Gillian Law and Chie Yui: Purification of RNase T-1 by DEAE cellulose chromatography.  Biochem J., 121: 591, 1971.

         

A procedure is described for isolating the enzyme ribonuclease T1 from Takadiastase, an extract of the mould Aspergillus oryzae. It involves an initial concentration of the enzyme by adsorption on DEAE-cellulose followed by gradient elution. Later the enzyme is chromatographed on the same adsorbent with an eluent of constant composition. Yields of 350–380mg of ribonuclease T1 from 500g of Takadiastase were obtained.


 

 

Biochemical  Journal:         


Robert Fields
and H.B.F. Dixon:  Micromethod for the determination of reactive carbonyl groups in proteins and peptides using 2,4-DNP-hydrazine.  Biochem J., 121: 587, 1971.

         

A method is described for determining carbonyl groups that is especially suitable for use with proteins and peptides. It involves the determination of the extinction at 370nm of a sample solution after adding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with pyruvoylglycine and with transaminated ribonuclease T(1) is presented; the isolation of protein hydrazones is discussed.


 

 

Biochemical  Journal:         


Robert Fields
and H.B.F. Dixon:  A spectrophometric method for the micro-determination of periodate.  Biochem J., 108: 883, 1968.

         

A method is described for measuring the concentration of periodate over the range 0·2–20μm by adding 1,2-di-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)ethane-1,2-diol to a sample solution. Periodate cleaves this compound to from two molecules of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, the extinction of which is then read at 352mμ. The method has been used to follow the course of periodate oxidations of serine methyl ester, ribonuclease A and ribonuclease S-protein. Addition of the reagent stops further periodate reaction by reducing the remaining periodate to iodate. The presence of protein does not interfere with the assay.



PUBLICATIONS in SCIENTIFIC REFERENCE BOOKS:                  


Methods in Enzymology:


Robert Fields
:  The rapid determination of amino groups with TNBS.  In “Methods in Enzymology”, Vol. XXV, Part B: 464, 1971.

         

            

 



Methods in Enzymology:
         


H.B.F. Dixon and Robert Fields
:  Specific modification of NH2-terminal residues by transamination.  In “Methods in Enzymology”, Vol. XXV, B: 409, 1971.


             


Fibrinogen 3. Biochemistry, Biological Functions, Gene Regulation and Expression

B.Blomback, B. Hessel, Robert Fields and R. Procyk: Fibrinogen Aarhus: An Abnormal Fibrinogen with ARG19->Gly19 Substitution.  In “Fibrinogen 3. Biochemistry, Biological Functions, Gene Regulation and Expression”. M.W. Mosesson et al, editors.  Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 1988.


Fibrinogen Aarhus was found in a woman with slightly prolonged whole blood clotting time. The thrombin induced clotting of plasma and purified fibrinogen was much prolonged. Kinetic analysis of FPA and FPB release revealed larger apparent Km and Vmax values for fibrinogen Aarhus than for normal fibrinogen. No clot formation of fibrinogen Aarhus was demonstrated in the presence of Batroxobin and the release of FPA was slower than normal. Upon addition of the clotting enzyme from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix clotting did occur but the clotting time was much prolonged in comparison with normal fibrinogen. The turbidity of fibrin gels obtained from fibrinogen Aarhus was similar to normal fibrin gels at low thrombin concentrations. Increasing thrombin concentration resulted in appearance of degradation products in the fibrin gels from fibrinogen Aarhus and at the same time a relative increase in turbidity of the gels was observed. Possibly reasons for the slow release of fibrinopeptides, the delayed gelation, and susceptibility to degradation by thrombin are discussed.

         

 

 

SCIENTIFIC PRESENTATIONS

  

2005 - Takako Fukumoto, Kasthuri Venkateswaran and Robert Fields: “Removal of Enzyme Inhibitors and Interferents from DNA Samples Using a Portable Robotic Instrument”; American Society of Microbiology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

 

2005 – J.C. Bruckner, R.C. Yalamanchili, R. Fields, R. Sumner and K. Venkateswaran: “Systematic Sampling and Processing of Nucleic Acids for Low Biomass Samples”; American Soc. of Microbiology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

 

 

2001 - Robert Fields, Taku Sugawara, Larry Mole and Mark Holodniy: “Fully Automated RNA and DNA Sample Prep Using a Multi-Channel Cartridge-Based Purification System”; CHI Conference, "Genomic Sample Preparation”, Boston, MA, USA.

 

2000 - J.P. Spencer, R. Fields, E.A. Henchal, D.R. Shoemaker and F.K. Knauert:  A Fully Automated Instrument for Preparing Bacillus anthracis DNA for PCR”; US Army Diagnostics Conference, Ft. Detrick, MD, USA.

 

1998 - Robert Fields, Fred K. Knauert, Bernard Courtney, & Erik A. Henchal:  Fully Automated Purification of Bacterial DNA In a Sealed Device”; RNA/DNA Diagnostics Conference -  Washington, D.C., USA.

 

1994 - Robert Fields:  Rapid Detection of HIV-1 DNA in a Sealed Containment Cassette”; Tenth International Congress on AIDS, Yokohama, Japan

 

1991 - Robert Fields:  Automated Peptide Sequencing: Two-fold increase in sensitivity by a instrument modification, using fine-bore ETFE tubing”;  Protein Society Meeting, San Diego, 1991.

      


RESEARCH EXPERIENCE:

THE NEW YORK BLOOD CENTER, New York, NY   

Director of Microchemistry                                                                1987–1993   
Laboratory Head, DNA/Protein CORE Facility

Procedures and Lab Instrumentation:

 DNA, RNA, Protein, Peptide, Carbohydrate Isolation and Purification

HPLC (Hewlett Packard Model 1090), Diode Array Detector 190nm - 720nm (Hewlett Packard ) with UV-Visible spectrum plotter, HPLC Fluorescence Detector (McPherson), HPLC (Hewlett Packard Model 1084) with UV Detector (LKB 2138) Speed Vac, Centrifuges, Freeze Dry Machines

DNA/RNA Oligonucleotide Synthesis and Purification

4-Column DNA/RNA Synthesizer (ABI Model 394-08) with multi-
            fraction collector for trityl analysis; Single column DNA
            Synthesizer
            ABI 391 PCR Mate EP) with fraction collector           

Peptide Synthesis; instruments for this service included:

FMOC Chemistry (Advanced ChemTech Model 350 MPS) Solid-phase Multiple Peptide synthesis system FMOC chemistry (Milligen Biosearch Model 9600) Solid-phase Peptide synthesis system, one gram capacity.

Automated DNA Sequencing and PCR

                        Applied Biosystems Automated DNA Sequencer  (ABI Model
                         373-A)
                       Perkin Elmer (Model 9600) Thermal Cycler, Heating blocks, Gel                         casting equipment and Microfuge

Automated Protein Sequencing and Compositional Analysis

Applied Biosystems Protein Sequencer (ABI 477A) Applied Biosystems PTH amino acid analyzer (ABI 120A), Integrator (Spectra Physics), Amino Acid Analyzer (Beckman 6300)           

Immunological Techniques

Synthesis of synthetic peptide immunogens: peptide dendrimers, branched chain artificial proteins, iodination of proteins with 32P; radioimmuno assays; scintillation counting; computation of binding affinity

Informatics and Software analysis  

DNA reading frame selection, codon usage, hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity analysis, DNA primer selection, amino acid pattern recognition, identification of restriction and phosphorylation sites, protein translation, secondary structure and antigenicity analysis, determination of membrane spanning regions peptide binding sites. DNASIS, PROSIS, DNA-STAR, MACAW.   

                    

Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine           1986-1987              Piscataway, NJ

 Research Associate                                             Interferon and enzyme mechanism

Selected Results: 

  •      Determined the phosphorylation sites for rat and murine interferon
                      gamma with Sidney Pestka

  •       Identified the active site of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase with
                      Regina Pietruszko
  •       Conducted seminars and workshops on advanced DNA purification
                       and DNA sequencing methods                                        

 

The Population Council, Rockefeller University                1985-1986
        Research Scientist                                  R&D Immunological  contraception

Selected Results: 

  • Prepared immunogens cross-reactive with human chorionic gonadotropin  (HCG) to induce antibodies to prevent pregnancy by blocking the HCG signal sent from an implanted embryo to the corpus luteum.

  • Synthesized D-amino acid analogues of  LHRH for studies of LHRH receptor agonists and antagonists

University of Cambridge                                                            1969-1971
       
Cambridge, England

 Fellow, Science Research Council                                       Ribonuclease enzyme                                                                                                    mechanism of action


Selected Results: 

     •    Created a novel spectrophometric method for the micro-determination
                    of
  periodate, aldehydes and ketones
•     Developed new method for quantitatively determining amino groups 
                     in proteins using TNBS



ENTREPRENEURIAL EXPERIENCE:

1997 – 2008      IGene Diagnostics, Inc.                 (Founder and CEO)
1993 – 1997      ITI Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.     (Founder and CEO)

1971 – 1985      Omnifit, Limited              (Founder & Managing Director)


IGENE  DIAGNOSTICS, INC.                                                              1997 – 2008
         Menlo Park, CA       

Chief Executive Officer                                 Analytical Instrument Development

Engineered and patented automated nucleic acid purification and rapid PCR instrument  prototypes for point-of care use in a physician’s office, including circuit diagrams for RS232/RS485 communication via USB; data acquisition of DNA fluorescence by fiber optics using 480 nm light. 

 

ITI MOLECULAR  DIAGNOSTICS, INC                                          1993 – 1997
     New York, NY  

 Chief Executive Officer                                                       HIV Viral Load, R&D

Secured Angel funding; created a working prototype for a high speed PCR thermal cycler; filed PCT patent applications. Viral RNA was purified from patients’ whole blood, then high-speed RT-PCR was then carried out to provide a viral load measurement. 


Omnifit, Limited                                                                                  1971-1983

      Cambridge, England

      Founder and Managing Director    OMNIFIT® Chromatography Equipment

         Created the Omnifit® brand of chemically inert analytical chromatography
         products; secured venture funding; supervised R&D, patenting,                
         manufacturing and marketing of products; set up subsidiary sales offices
         in USA and Japan, established  worldwide dealerships in France, Germany,

         Switzerland, Holland and 10 other countries.   Company was sold in 1983.


PATENTS GRANTED:


          US Patent No. 3,880,452, entitled “CONNECTORS”.

 

          US Patent No. 3,889,712, entitled “VALVES”.

 

          US Patent No. 4,165,893, entitled “CONNECTOR FOR TUBING”.

 

          US Patent No. 4,291,903, entitled “HIGH PRESSURE INERT CONNECTOR

                    FOR TUBING”.

 

          US Patent No. 4,335,739, entitled “SLIDER VALVES”.

 

          U.S. Patent No 5,840,573, entitled “MOLECULAR ANALYSER

                    AND METHOD OF USE”.

 

          PCT International Patent, entitled “BIOMOLECULAR PROCESSOR”; Patents
                     granted in UK, France and Germany

          PCT International Patent, entitled “MOLECULAR ANALYSER

                    AND METHOD OF USE”, granted in Canada, Australia, UK, France,

 

          Twenty-eight additional patents granted in the USA, Australia, England,

                    Germany, France and Japan.




AWARDS

 
          Research Fellowship
, Science Research Council, University of Cambridge,

                                      UK; 1969-1971           

          Technological Innovator of the Year, annual UK entrepreneurial award,

                                       Technical Development Capital Ltd.;  1975

           CRADA,   for developing DNA isolation and  purification instruments,

                                        with U.S. Army, 1997-1998

           Research Contract for portable DNA fluorescent sequence detection

                                         instrumentation, U.S. Army, 1999

           Research Grant A9C 904630 for portable DNA purification instrumentation,

                                          U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1999

           Research Contract for  DNA purification instrumentation, NASA Jet

                                           Propulsion Laboratory, 2002

           Contract PO-0000164 for portable DNA purification instrumentation,

                                           U.S. Air Force, 2003

           Contract 609344 for portable DNA purification instrumentation,

                                            Sandia National Laboratory, 2006

                


SOCIETIES

          Cognitive Neuroscience Society
          The Biochemical Society
          The Society for the Neural Control of Movement
          American Association for the Advancement of Science

 

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